- About ARF
- Make a Difference
- Research Studies
- Contact Us
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 225(3):414-6, 2004
Kutzler MA. Baker RJ. Mattson DE.
OBJECTIVE: To determine humoral responses to an equine West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine in healthy alpacas and llamas and compare responses in alpacas and llamas with responses in horses.
DESIGN: Clinical trial.
ANIMALS: 28 alpacas, 56 llamas, and 16 horses.
PROCEDURE: Horses received 2 vaccinations at 4-week intervals, and alpacas and llamas received 3 vaccinations at 3-week intervals. Fifty-five llamas received a fourth vaccination 3 weeks after the third. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to each vaccination, 3 weeks after the last vaccination for alpacas and llamas, and 4 weeks after the last vaccination for horses and tested for virus-neutralizing antibodies. Samples from 29 randomly selected vaccinated llamas were used.
RESULTS: None of the animals developed any local or systemic adverse reactions. Four of 28 (14%) alpacas, 4 of 29 (14%) llamas, and 7 of 16 (44%) horses were seropositive 3 (llamas and alpacas) or 4 (horses) weeks after administration of the first vaccination; 27 of 28 (96%) alpacas, 26 of 29 (90%) llamas, and 15 of 16 (94%) horses were seropositive after administration of the second vaccination; and all 28 alpacas and 28 of 29 (97%) llamas were seropositive 3 weeks after administration of the third vaccination.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggest that vaccination with the equine WNV vaccine is safe in alpacas and llamas. Administration of 3 vaccinations generally resulted in virus-neutralizing antibody titers similar to those observed following 2 vaccinations in horses; however, because it is not known what antibody titer would be protective against clinical WNV disease in alpacas or llamas, we cannot conclude that the vaccine was efficacious.